Introduction of Photobiomodulation Helmet
Photobiomodulation (PBM) describes the use of red or near-infrared light to stimulate, heal, regenerate, and protect tissue that has either been injured, is degenerating, or else is at risk of dying. One of the organ systems of the human body that is most necessary to life, and whose optimum functioning is most worried about by humankind in general, is the brain.
The brain suffers from many different disorders that can be classified into three broad groupings: traumatic events (stroke, traumatic brain injury, and global ischemia), degenerative diseases (dementia, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s), and psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, post traumatic stress disorder). There is some evidence that all these seemingly diverse conditions can be beneficially affected by applying light to the head. There is even the possibility that PBM could be used for cognitive enhancement in normal healthy people.
Main Functions of Photobiomodulation Helmet
1. The 810 nm wavelength has the ability to extend through the skull to the brain, promoting recovery from traumatic brain injury and reducing long-term nerve damage.
2. 810nm wavelength can help patients with severe depression and anxiety.
3. NIR light is absorbed by cytochrome C oxidase in mitochondria.
4. Increased blood flow, energy, neuroprotection and less inflammation.
5. treat traumatic (stroke, TBI), neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases.
Indications of Photobiomodulation Helmet
Contraindication of Photobiomodulation Helmet
PBM therapy was developed more than 50 years ago, however, there is still no common agreement on the parameters and protocols for its clinical application. Some research teams have recommended the use of a power density of less than 100 mW/cm2 and an energy density of 4 to 10 J/cm2. Others groups recommended as much as 50 J/cm2 at the tissue surface. Parameters like wavelength, energy, flfluence, power, irradiance, pulse mode, treatment duration, and repetition rate can be applied in a wide range. Our present preliminary results showed a clear response of cerebral rSO2 in relation to the LED stimulation. However, it has to be mentioned that the temperature increased significantly, and these effects have to be taken into account in further studies in details. There is also the fact that ineffective studies in cells with high mitochondrial activity appear to be due more often to over-dosing than to under-dosing. Therefore, clinical studies concerning the optimal stimulation doses are necessary.
Transcranial PBM appears promising to treat different mental diseases. Pitzschke et al. also can measure light propagation in different areas of Parkinson’s disease (PD)-relevant deep brain tissue during transcranial and transsphenoidal illumination (at 671 and 808 nm) of a cadaver head and modeled optical parameters of human brain tissue using Monte-Carlo simulations. This study demonstrates that it is possible to also illuminate deep brain tissues transcranially and transsphenoidally. This opens therapeutic options for sufferers of PD or other cerebral diseases necessitating light therapy. There have been several investigations concerning possible adverse effects for LED PBM.
For example, Moro et al. explored the effects of longer term application, up to 12 weeks, of PBM (670 nm) in normal, naïve macaque monkeys. They found no histological basis for any major biosafety concerns associated with PBM delivered by an intracranial approach. Hennessy and Hamblin also pointed out the already established safety and notable lack of adverse effects of transcranial PBM. The preliminary results are very promising. However, further research work is required in order to be able to use, for example, this new kind of PBM as a therapeutic method. Many investigators believe that PBM with LED and/or laser for brain disorders will become one of the most important medical applications of light therapy in the coming years and decades.
Reference: Brain Photobiomodulation – Preliminary Results from Regional Cerebral Oximetry and Thermal Imaging